China’s Cooperation with Neighboring Developing Countries in the Twenty-first Century
LI Chenyang and YANG Xiangzhang
ABSTRACT： Developing countries in China’s neighborhood occupy a unique position in China’s foreign policy since the beginning of the twenty-first century. China has intensified cooperation with neighboring developing countries due to a number of factors： growing overall national strength, increasingly urgent development needs of neighboring countries, and extraregional powers’ shifting strategic focus. Closer cooperation in the economic realm has facilitated the formation of networks of partnership and sharpened China’s sense of global responsibility. However, multiple challenges have to be addressed before China can elevate its relations with its neighboring countries to a new level, such as better protection of expanding overseas interests, intensified territorial disputes, extraregional powers’ interference, and the shifting global landscape.
Keywords： neighborhood, developing countries, cooperation, challenge
On China’s Integrative Diplomacy toward the Middle East in the New Era
ABSTRACT： Integrative diplomacy is a diplomatic paradigm for great powers to carry out comprehensive cooperation with a group of stakeholders through multilateral organizations and regimes. China’s integrative diplomacy vis-à-vis the Middle East can be classified into four types： bilateral cooperation （“1+N”）, proactive engagement （“N+1”）, regional interaction （“1+N+X”）, and global consultation （“X+X”）. China’s integrative diplomacy in the region serves as a key platform to carry out all-round cooperation with developing countries, to build great power relations, and to foster a community of shared interests in the Middle East. It places more emphasis on the less-binding process than on treaties and regulations； more on official diplomacy than on public diplomacy； more on economic than on security cooperation； more on tactic than on strategic design； and more on the central government than on the local provinces. As a means to implement the “Belt and Road” initiative in the Middle East, China should attach more importance to the participation in multilateral organizations and bilateral partnership networks as well as the usage of its diplomatic resources. In the process of integrative diplomacy, China should enhance its discourse in the global arena and promote a closer partnership with Middle Eastern countries.